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1. Go to http://www.greenpastureproducts.com, and place an order for any of our products. You may also mail in requests to enter to win PO Box 486 O'Neill, NE 68763. Put "For Book Drawing" on the outside of the envelope. The date it is received is the date it will go into the drawing.
2. The drawing will run from today until October 16, 2015. The dates of each drawing will be:
October 5 October 7 October 9 October 12 October 14 October 16
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4. If you choose to enter to win through placing an order, before you complete your order, you will see a "customer comments section". In this area enter in the following request: "I would like to enter to win a free copy of "Cure Gum Disease Naturally" by Rami Nagel.
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7. If you are a lucky winner your copy will be shipped via FedEx to your address.
The photo of the book cover by Sandrine Love is reproduced with permission.
Dr. Subramaniam Sathivel, Ph.D., Professor of Food Engineer at the School Nutrition and Food Sciences and the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSUAC), analyzed recent lab tests of our Fermeneted Cod Liver Oil. Below is his report to us:
I reviewed the reports from Mid West Laboratories, Inc. and Eurofins Laboratories for your Fermented Cod Liver Oil.
The independent analytical labs analyzed a total of seven Fermented Cod liver Oil samples and provided data for fatty acids profiles and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values. The secondary lipid oxidation products (aldehydes) are evaluated by the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) reacting with thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The TBA value of your fish oils was an average of 0.32 mg MDA /kg oil, which is well below the acceptable level. Consumers may accept edible oil with TBA as high as 7-8 mg MDA/kg oil (Huss 2011).
Please note that lipid oxidation is a chain reaction and, in general, oxidized oil will have high amount of aldehydes. Dr. Martin Grootveld, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom, analyzed your oil for lipid oxidation products (aldehydes and/or their conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors) using one- and two-dimensional multicomponent H NMR technique. According to Dr. Martin Grootveld’s report they did not find aldehydes and/or their conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors in your oil sample. Dr. Grootveld’s findings are in accordance with TBA values of your oil that were analyzed by the above-mentioned laboratory. This indicated that your oil had no or undetectable levels of secondary oxidized products including aldehydes aldehyde.
The above-mentioned commercial analytical labs report showed an average of 1.19% trans fatty acids in your oil. It is normal to have very low level of trans fatty acids. Some labs may not report trans fatty acids in fish oil because they are, if present, present only at undetectable level or at levels less than 1%. What is free fatty acid? Oil molecules are known as triglycerides, which means three free fatty acids attached with a glycerol as shown in Figure 1. Three fatty acids could be saturated or unsaturated or two unsaturated and one saturated or one unsaturated and two saturated fatty acids. Therefore, we can find many different triglycerides in oil. Our body absorbs only free fatty acids, monoglycerides (one fatty acid bonded with a glycerol) and some diglycerides (two fatty acids bonded with a glycerol), which means body cannot absorb oil with the triglyceride form. Pancreatic lipase enzyme in our intestine breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and monoglycerides or diglycerides and then our body absorbs them.
Triglycerides can also breakdowns break down into free fatty acids during extraction and processing of fish oil. Either water or lipases (both are present in animal tissue) hydrolyzes triglycerides and produces free fatty acids. Please note that free fatty acids in oil are not a compound resulting from a lipid oxidation reaction. I think there may be free fatty acids forms of DHA and EPA available in the nutraceutical market. There is limited research that shows that the free acid form of omega -3 provides more health benefits than triglyceride forms. In edible oil refining, we estimate refining loss based on the amount of free fatty acids in the oil. Your oil sample had an average of 17.3% free fatty acids, which is relatively high. Please note that your production technique of cod liver oil is very different than the traditional methods. In general, unrefined fish oil or unrefined edible oil has a high amount of free fatty acids. Sodium hydroxide is a base used to neutralize free fatty acids in edible oil. There are other techniques such as adsorption and distillation that can be used to remove free fatty acids. As I mentioned in another paper, free fatty acids have a tendency to oxidize; however, your oil has a very low level of TBA. It may be due to the presence of antioxidants in the oil. Your vitamin analysis showed that the fermented cod oil had a significant amount of vitamin A, which is known as an excellent antioxidant. It absorbs free radicals that result from lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation is a chain reaction and we can delay or minimize lipid oxidation by removing free radicals. Your company uses amber bottles, which prevents or minimize light penetration into the bottle. UV light is one of the factors that promote lipid oxidation. In general, all oil has a tendency to oxidize regardless of free fatty acid content when they are exposed to light a long period of time or subjected to heat.
In conclusion, the data shows that your cod liver oil is a good quality oil and a good source of omega-3.
Again, free fatty acids in the oil are not compounds resulting from lipid oxidation reactions. In other words, they are not aldehydes.
If you have any questions, please let me know.
Subramaniam Sathivel, Ph.D.Professor of Food Processing Engineering
Dr. Sathivel is the Professor of Food Engineer at the School Nutrition and Food Sciences and the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSUAC). Before joined LSUAC, Dr. Sathivel worked five years as an Assistant Professor of Seafood Processing and Engineering at the Fishery Industry Technology Center (FITC), University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska. He is responsible for the food process engineering laboratory at the LSUAC, where his projects include design and development of an adsorption technology to purify fish oils and fish protein, value added products, edible films and edible coatings. Dr. Sathivel has published 60 refereed articles, two popular articles, five book chapters, and six proceedings. Dr. Sathivel has an equally respectable record of published abstracts and professional presentations, many of which were invited talks at international scientific meetings and conferences.
Huss, H.H. 2011. Fresh fish – quality and quanity changes. A training manual prepared for the FAO/DANIDA Training Program on Fish Technology and Quality Control. FAO, FAO Fisheries Series, Rome.
Schnepf M., Spencer G., and Carlat J. 1991. Chemical and sensory characteristics of stored menhaden oil/soybean oil blends. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 68, 281-284.
Copied below is Dr. Vicki Schlegel’s scientific analysis of several test reports. We randomly selected 7 samples from the product retention room and inventory. These samples of Fermented Cod Liver OIl have been sitting at room temperature for 5 to 12 months.
Dr. Schlegel has approved of the following summation of her findings:
After having reviewed our test results, Dr. Schlegel concluded that our Fermented Cod Liver Oil is in the low/normal range for oxidization. In addition, the free fatty acid test can not be used on our product with meaningful results. Free fatty acid tests measure the reaction when a base is added to the product and Fermented Cod Liver Oil has too many factors that could be reacting to the base. The only place that you can use a free fatty acid test accurately is with a purified oil such as corn oil and others that have been heavily processed.
The following test reports were provide by Midwest Laboratories, Inc. and Eurofins Nutrition Analysis Center:
"After reviewing your data from past two years, I can state that your free fatty acids should not be used as an oxidation marker in your product. Although the FFA is high in your product (and indicator of primary oxidation), the peroxide value (another indicator of primary oxidation) is low. Moreover the FFA is always fairly consistent, suggesting that other acidic compounds present in your product is reacting with the test other than oxidized agents. The test for FFA is based on an acid/base titration. Therefore, any acidic agent will add to the results. In general, other oxidation indicators for secondary oxidation, TBAs, anisidine value, and overall oil stability are low as well. In most cases, you do have one or both of these tests shown on the testing results, which are quite low for secondary oxidation. I would suggest testing anisidine and TBAs at the same time to verify the secondary oxidation products in you products. Bottom line, the FFA test for your product is not a good indicator of oxidation."
Research Areas: My research includes characterizing the small molecules (secondary metabolites / lipids) in natural systems, with an emphasis on sorghum, dry edible beans, and co-products of food based waste stream, to understand how they act synergistically in preventing or remediating a human health stressed state to a healthy state. This information is used to facilitate the development of functional foods and/or nutraceuticals.
• To discover plant base synergists able to prevent / remediate a stressed phenotype to a healthy phenotype (e.g., pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory states of macrophages or virulent to non-virulent state of pathogenic yeasts or high cholesterol to low cholesterol state).
• To understand how synergistic natural compounds modulate carbohydrate metabolism and/or molecular/orgenelle structures to maintain a healthy state.
• To evaluate the effects farming practices / environment and cooking processes on plant secondary metabolites in various crops to ensure that the proper combination of health promoting synergists are maintained. (Management system - effect on long term processes.)
• Development of high-throughput metabolomic analytical methods for analyzing the effects of metabolites from a complex dietary system acting upon human health metabolism.
We regret that it has taken us some time to address questions about the labels for our Fermented Cod Liver Oil products and other questions. We wanted to make sure we had the correct answers and proper guidance prior to posting the remainder of the information we are scheduled to post. The United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, does not define cod liver oil; therefore, we have consulted with many parties prior to updating and reviewing our labels to ensure accuracy.
While the FDA does not define cod liver oil, it does tell us what “cod” is, and due to improvements in DNA testing technology, the FDA has determined that Alaska pollock really belongs in the cod family. This link is to the FDA’s Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia.
You will note that there are 7 different types of fish listed under the family name Gadidea, including various cods, pollocks, haddock and hake. In fact, the genus name for Alaska pollock is now Gadus, the same as the cods.
However, even though the FDA has determined that these fish are from the same family, after hearing your concerns, we are going to update our label to include a specificity that is rare in the cod liver oil market. Our new label will include the species name from the Gadidae family that is in each bottle. I have not been able to find any fish oil supplements that list the species of fish on the shelves of health food stores I've visited, though I am aware of some that list the genus.
Here is a partially completed sample of the updated label for our Fermented Cod Liver Oil that will begin to be updated on products within the next few weeks. As noted on the label we are using Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod) as this was in excellent supply in the past year. Allergen labeling is becoming more refined. We are still working on the wording, but we will also include a statement about our processing facilities such as '"this product is processed in facilities that also handle and store shellfish, other species of fish, milk, and soy."
Consumer education is important to us and we have learned that some consumers do not know that Pacific cod, Atlantic cod, Greenland cod, and Alaska pollock (tomcod) are in the same family of Gadidae. As noted above, Alaska pollock is not only in the same family (Gadidae) as Pacific cod, Atlantic cod, and Greenland cod, but it is the same genus (Gadus/common codfishes). The Alaska pollock is in the same waters, consumes the same feed, and contains similar EPA/DHA and vitamins as the Pacific cod. It is most closely related to the Atlantic cod. The spirit of cod liver oil is Gadidae fish livers that have a specific range of EPA/DHA and good source of vitamin A/D. In the past when we have used some Alaska pollock, it has been because we were unable to obtain enough Pacific cod. Despite some unfounded rumors, we do not benefit from any cost savings based on species alone.
We consult with both industry and academia and test before we use any Gadidae fish livers to produce our oils. In fact, Merriam Webster Dictionary defines the term, “cod liver oil” as “an oil obtained from the liver of the cod and closely related fishes and used as a source of vitamins A and D”. This is similar to the definition proposed by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization’s CODEX Committee for Fats and Oils for CODEX standard for fish oil, which specifically identifies the livers to be obtained through wild caught fish from within the Gadidae fish family. See page 34 of the report. Every ocean of the world has different fish genus and species that fall within the Gadidae family.
We currently do not import livers because we prefer to use sources closer to United States waters. I’m aware of only a couple of fishes that fall within the family of fish that can be used to make excellent quality cod liver oil within the area that we do business, which is the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands.
We hope our updated label will help consumers make informed decisions on what fish oil products to consume, and we are grateful for our loyal customers who continue to experience the benefits of Green Pasture™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil.
We will be publishing more along these lines in a "Question and Answer" post that will address a number of concerns we have yet to cover. Stay tuned.
Jane Sagmoe, Michigan, September 23, 2015 at 10:36 PM
will the product for this new 'species' specific label be 100% pacific cod?
Yes, as discussed, if we need to change this in the future we will update the label. This is an allergen concern. I'm not sure how all the other fish oils companies will comply. Most of them bend all sorts of species. Right now fish oil industry does not list species. Many labels don't even list genus. Can't imagine a label with 10,20 ... different fish listed on the label. Even fish gelatin products will need to outline the species on the labels.
Janie Sagmoe, Michigan, September 23, 2015 at 8:57 PM
I am very glad to see that you're updating your product label and will be following the rules set forth by the FDA for listing "species" and the allergen statements (fyi, also requires specification of "species" in regards to fish & shellfish/crustaceans). Thank you for promptly addressing this particular concern and correcting this omission in your product labeling.
we are going to see all sorts of label and posting changes in all food products and service soon. The allergen discussion and labeling is going to be a big discussion point within the entire food industry. Last night I was at restaurant and at the cash register the restaurant had a prominent sign posted discussion possible allergens handled in the restaurant
Sara Meisel, Forest Hills, NY USA, September 23, 2015 at 8:32 PM
Thank you for this information. When will you have more definitive information on the Vitamin D3 content in the Fermented Oil?
please see discussion within 'What do the scientist think" blog posting
Ann Hibbard, Lake Junaluska, NC, September 23, 2015 at 1:33 PM
God bless your company. Please allow the recent attack on your FCLO to be a stepping stone to greater clarity and firmer footing within a market that you have helped to create and certainly enlightened. It was inevitable that something like this happen given our contentious main stream culture. Thanks for your integrity in meeting the challenge and using it to strengthen your light on the path to good health and well being.
Michel, Washington, September 23, 2015 at 12:28 PM
What about trans fat content... As mentioned in the Daniels report... Do you have info on this? Wouldn't expect any in an oil but would fermentation cause trans fat?
see other discussions such as Dr. Vicki Schlegel article has fatty acid test reports listed. Ask the scientist article discussion, and there will be more posted. We do not add vegetable oil. We don't have vegetable oil in our house let alone the plant. The levels are always low and and natural, we don't add anything.
Luiza, British Columbia, Canada, September 23, 2015 at 12:06 PM
Thank you David for your sincere effort and clarification!
Victor Cozzetto, New York, September 23, 2015 at 11:53 AM
The results many of us have had using FCLO from GP speak much louder than any opinion paper that tries to inflate and conflate inapplicable Lab tests.
Its been used for Generations. People are getting bogged down in molecular quantifier arguments.
Scientist may try to think smart, but healthy people are doing smart.
Let those who want follow the scientists on down their path of plastic margarine, petroleum based vitamins and anti-oxidants, and herbicide filled GMO's.
Why even engage with them? Let them have their beliefs, and we will have ours.
Comrade in real food
agree, this is not the first time someone/group has attempted to step into others kitchen and direct the activity. Raw milk etc.....
Caroline Mintzer, Abingdon, Maryland, September 23, 2015 at 5:19 PM
Never occurred to me to equate fermentation with rancidity . . . Am not familiar with the fermentation of the oil vs a veggie like cabbage to sour kraut, etc.
The oil is not fermented it is the livers that are fermented. Similar to fermented fish sauce or maybe picked herring and similar traditional fermented fish foods
Jeanmarie Todd, Orem, UT, September 22, 2015 at 10:47 PM
Thanks for this excellent article. It answers many questions. Could you also please address the Marine Stewardship Council issue that Kaayla Daniel has raised in her latest blog post? I am not impressed with her methods; she does seem to have started with a conclusion and is still trying to patch together damning allegations and evidence, but she has a lot of people paying attention to her, so it would be good to follow up o that issue, too. Thank you.
I'm not totally familiar with the post but I did reach out the MSC and spoke to three people including one regional director yesterday. They were appreciative of the contact and I am not aware of any other discussion I will have with them.
Interesting critique of the Kaayla report. Will Green Pasture be making a statement about the vitamin k, co-q10, and trans-fat concern?
we do not add any vegetable oil to the product. we don't have vegetable oil in the home let lone the plant .... more test data to be posted soon
Bill Leach, Idaho, September 22, 2015 at 8:49 PM
Craig, you might want to look at what Doctors Hector Deluca and Subramaniam Sathivel had to say about GP FCLO. Especially what Dr. DeLuca said about trans-fats and FLCO.
Murray Braithwaite, Toronto, Canada, September 22, 2015 at 2:51 PM
I have been using the Green Pasture cod liver oil and butter for some years now. Please comment regarding the data on the trans fats content. I presume the finding was an aberration and was the result of a biased attack, but I expect some unbiased, independent testing results on the issue of trans fats.