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Nebraska farmer James Osborne pours out some drinks for the commission (Screencapture)
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Appearing before a Nebraska Oil & Gas Conservation committee hearing, a local farmer received nothing but silence from the pro-fracking members of the board after he invited them to drink glasses of water tainted by fracking.
In the video, uploaded to YouTube by BoldNebraska, Nebraskan James Osborne used his 3 minutes before the committee to visually explain what fracking waste can do to the water table, dramatically pouring out water containing his own “private mixture” of fracking additives.
The committee is holding public hearings on a proposal by an oil company to ship out-of-state fracking wastewater into Nebraska where it will be dumped into a “disposal well” in Sioux County. According to a report, the Terex Energy Corp wants to truck as much as 10,000 barrels a day of the chemical-laden fracking wastewater to a ranch north of Mitchell, Nebraska for disposal.
Explaining that he has ties to the oil industry and that he is still on the fence about fracking, Osbourne explained fluid dynamics to the board while pouring out three cups of the sludgy water that could result from spills or from seeping into the water table.
Referring to earlier testimony, Osbourne said, “So you told me this morning that you would drink this water,” as he indicated the cups.
“So would you drink it? Yes or no?” he asked, only to be met by silence by the stone-faced group before a member explained they wouldn’t be answering any questions.
“Oh, you can’t answer any questions? Well my answer would be ‘no.’ I don’t want this in the water that will travel entirely across this state in three days,” Osborne said. “There is no doubt there will be contamination. There will be spills.”
Osborne left the glasses on the table before thanking the committee and leaving to applause.
Watch the video below from BoldNebraska:
Information from Bold Nebraska and the Nebraska Sierra Club (shown below) also show that many of these testimonials will not be apart of the official record. See below for article #2 plus other videos of the hearing and petition information.
Local citizens opposed to an out-of-state company's plan to export toxic fracking wastewater into Nebraska dominated a 6-hour hearing on Tuesday in Sidney.
Citizens like James Osborn of Ainsworth, Nebr., who poured the Oil & Gas Commissioners each a glass of fracked water and asked if they'd drink it. Watch the video.
Unfortunately, dozens of citizens who showed up to the hearing — including a busload of students from Scottsbluff High School — didn't see James's testimony and demonstration, as they were held outside the too-small venue organized by a Commission unprepared to adequately host a public hearing as laid out under state open meeting laws.
Despite the obstacles in their way, nearly 50 citizens testified against the fracking well. However, in a slap in the face to everyone who took time out of their day to come and testify, the Commission stated it will not consider any of these citizens' public comments in their final decision on the well.  We recorded almost all of it; you can view the full "public" segment of the hearing here.
Bold Nebraska and the Nebraska Sierra Club believe that for these and other reasons the hearing violated state open meeting laws, and are exploring options on filing a complaint.
We thank Nebraska State Sen. Ken Haar for traveling to Sidney while the Legislature was in session to testify at the hearing, and to Sen. John Stinner of Scottsbluff for his letter urging the Oil & Gas Commission not to take any action on this well until the Legislature can study the Commission's authority and fracking wastewater's impact on our water and natural resources.
Apparently, these two State Senators' testimony will also not be part of the official record, as it took place during the off-the-record "public" portion of the hearing. We believe everyone's testimony should be part of the official record, and the Oil and Gas Commission violated the law by attempting to exclude it.
We're now calling on Natural Resources Committee Chairman, Senator Ken Schilz, whose District 47 includes Sioux County, and who represents the vast majority of citizens who testified at the Oil & Gas Commission hearing, to stand with Senators Stinner and Harr and join the call for a pause on this well permit until the Legislature can study the issue and ensure our water and natural resources are protected.
Tell Sen. Ken Schilz: Pause the fracking well permit process until the Legislature can study fracking wastewater's impact on our natural resources.
The soft tissues in your mouth are an extension of your gastrointestinal tract. Your mouth is like the first tee in a golf game; like the coming attractions before the movie starts in the theater; like the entrance to Disney World. It’s where it all begins.
As a periodontist, I have been treating gum disease for 41 years. The traditional methods of treating gum disease have rarely included the concepts of healthy nutrition based on our evolutionary requirements. For my patients, I include the methods of assisting all the body’s cells to reach their peak nutritional performance along with my treatment of gum disease through patient-friendly techniques.
There is a relationship between the gums, the gut, and Paleo. Let me describe this correlation.
Your gastrointestinal tract is a tube about 25 feet long. The tissues lining the entire length of this tube from the mouth to the anus can and will respond in their own way to whatever occurs along this path.
Once you take the first bite of food, digestion begins. Assisting digestion are the teeth that chew the food, the muscles that move the food along, the enzymes and chemicals that are produced to breakdown the food, the friendly bacteria that further digest food particles and produce necessary biochemicals, and the absorption processes that allow the dissolved nutrients to migrate into the bloodstream to nourish every cell of the body. Whatever is left over from this digestion process is excreted.
If there were irritants to the gut from the foods we ate, damage to the lining of the gut and increase in unhealthy bacteria could occur. The result could be unhealthy particles of food and bacteria entering the bloodstream creating chronic inflammation. This inflammation and increase in unhealthy gut bacteria affect the entire body as well as the health of the gum tissues. Their pathways increase the potential for gum disease as well as increase unhealthy bacteria in the mouth. Unhealthy bacteria in the mouth and further insult from ingestion of unhealthy carbohydrates will cause gum disease.
Paleo is a lifestyle. A Paleo way of eating may go under various titles. It is sometimes called a primal diet, or an ancestral diet, or a caveman diet. There are no specific foods that make up a Paleo diet. The common denominator is that all these dietsDO NOT include processed foods or processed sugars or conventionally fed and farmed animal products or processed fats and oils. A Paleo diet avoids these unhealthy foods, which often lead to damage in the gut, increase in unhealthy gut bacteria, and eventually damage in the gum tissues.
To come full circle, a Paleo diet, which excludes all these bad foods, can maintain a healthy gut in addition to healing a damaged gut. A Paleo diet can help maintain gum health.
So the importance of Paleo is that its nutrient-dense foods will allow the gut to function properly. A healthy gut will allow nutrients to be absorbed properly and will maintain a healthy community of gut bacteria. All this assists the gum tissues in remaining healthy.
The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.
There appears to be a continued public misconception (encouraged by the supplement industry) that free radicals are bad, and that antioxidants are good. Of course, like most phenomena affecting our health, it’s not that simple.
Free radicals are molecules or atoms containing an unpaired electron. Unpaired electrons are attention seekers. They really don’t like being alone, so are always searching out other electrons. This makes them highly reactive. Free radicals are like the unstable friend who shows up drunk to the party and starts breaking things. Antioxidants are molecules that are able to donate an electron to the free radical, thus stabilizing it. They’re like the patient friend who is able to convince the free radical not to drive home, takes him to the back room to calm him down, and brings him water and a bucket once he starts throwing up.
Needless to say, without the presence of antioxidants, free radicals can really ruin the party. The cellular damage that results is called oxidative stress, and is associated with ageing, heart failure, cancer, Alzheimer’s, and many other health problems.
Until recently, the thinking had been that the more antioxidants, the less oxidative stress, because all of those lonely electrons would quickly get paired up before they had the chance to start mucking things up in our cells. But that thinking has changed.
“Free radicals are not really the bad ones or antioxidants the good ones.” Villanueva told me. Their paper explains the process by which antioxidants themselves become reactive, after donating an electron to a free radical. But, in cases when a variety of antioxidants are present, like the way they come naturally in our food, they can act as a cascading buffer for each other as they in turn give up electrons to newly reactive molecules.
“For instance,” Villanueva said, “chocolate has more than 20 antioxidant flavonoids. One is converted into a free radical and becomes reactive, but less reactive [than the first]. It then reacts with another, and that one is less reactive and so on and so forth, and all of them react with each other, decreasing the damage that would be happening to our lipids, or proteins or DNA”
Source: Villanueva & Kross, 2012
If there is only one type of antioxidant present, say in the case of a high-dose vitamin C supplement, then there are no other antioxidants to provide that protective cascade effect. Then you could end up with a bunch of reactive vitamin C, which itself can cause what they call “antioxidant stress.”
Wait a minute—I asked. So a person taking high dose antioxidants might actually be doing the exact opposite of what he or she is trying to accomplish with the supplement? Yes, they said. But it gets even worse.
Free radicals are a natural byproduct of aerobic metabolism in the cells (energy production using oxygen), which ramps up during physical activity. The free radicals produced by this increase in metabolism signal the cell to make its own home-made antioxidants. These endogenous antioxidants are very important, and may be responsible for many of the health benefits associated with physical activity.
Barbara Demmig-Adams, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Colorado in Boulder, and one of the authors of the 2014 paper wrote in an email:
“I think it’s a really important realization that the much-maligned radicals have a job to do in our bodies and that single high-dose supplements can do more harm than good. . . Our review on antioxidants and exercise is just the tip of the iceberg. There is a real paradigm shift . . . in the biomedical research area that is causing pioneers to ask, ‘could 50 years of research be wrong?’”
It didn’t take much Googling to discover that over the last few years, this new thinking about antioxidants has indeed enjoyed some coverage. But has this new knowledge really made it through to the public? In a highly unscientific survey, I annoyed my friends over the last few weeks by baiting them with the question: “So what do you think of antioxidants?” Generally the consensus still seemed to be that a vitamin C supplement, say before a cold, was a good idea.
“The best advice is just to eat a proper diet that contains a variety of antioxidants, but don’t go overboard,” said Robert Kross. “Antioxidant supplements are only justified if you have a deficiency,” he explained. The research continues to support this idea—that optimal health comes from moderation and balance. But will we ever really embrace moderation?
“We want a hero and a villain,” she told me over the phone. “But it’s actually more about balance. Sometimes [antioxidants] are good, and sometimes [they’re] not good. What are we supposed to do with that?” It’s especially hard for people to wrap their minds around the latest nutrition advice, Price pointed out, because it always seems to be changing.
“It’s so confusing. It speaks to our inability to cope with the uncertainty of science. You have experts for 30 or 40 years saying that margarine is good for us, and then we find that it’s totally untrue, and still there are all these other questions for which we don’t have the answers,” said Price.
So whom should we expect the public to listen to, when we righteously start touting the latest data? By their very nature, scientists are never 100 percent sure about anything. But marketers seem to be so certain about everything they tell us. Not only that, but their messages are simple, and make us feel good:
Vitamin C is an antioxidant.
Antioxidants are good for you.
Drink this, it will make you feel better.
In fact, in the long run, it might make you feel a whole lot worse. Our cells practice an elegant balancing act, each component playing an important part: vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, water, free radicals, other metabolites, antioxidants—both endogenous and dietary. When we figure out a specific beneficial role any one of these serves, it’s tempting to say: “Wow, look how important this thing is, let’s make sure folks get a whole bunch of it!” But that can throw off the whole delicate system, leading to some serious consequences.
About the Author: Patrick Mustain is a Minneapolis-based freelance health and science writer and digital media producer. He is interested in the challenges of public health in a consumer society. He is also a co-founder and director of NewBodyEthic.org, an organization inviting health and fitness professionals to help reform the industry from within. He also likes sandwiches and climbing on things. You can find more of his work at his website, patrickmustain.com. Follow on Twitter @patrickmustain.
Celebrating Addie Wetzel and St Mary's first ever State Basketball Title. Pictured below is Addie fired up after making third straight traditional 3 pt play; offensive rebound,basket, fouled, then free throw, during second half.
St. Mary's scores first-ever girls basketball title
Norfolk Daily News/DARIN EPPERLY
First time champions
O'Neill St. Mary's celebrated in a dog pile after defeating Dundy County-Stratton in Saturday's Class D1 championship game at Pinnacle Bank Arena.
LINCOLN -- Saturday started with a new entry into the history books for O'Neill St. Mary's.
The Cardinals used a huge second half to win its first girls basketball state championship in school history with a 52-33 over Dundy County-Stratton in the first title game.
It was only the beginning of the day, as Northeast Nebraska had teams in five of the six state championship games.
The Cardinals began the second half on a tear, scoring 20 of the first 23 points for a 38-23 lead. A big reason for that run was the rebounding effort of St. Mary's, as they scored on five second-chance opportunities. The Cardinals finally exposed its height advantage, as a pair of 6-footers played crucial roles in St. Mary's pulling away.
Addie Wetzel, a 6-foot-1 senior, had a monster third quarter. She was a perfect 4 of 4 from the field, and three of her baskets resulted in 3-point plays that helped turn the tide of the game. She finished with a season-high 17 points.
Sydney Hupp, a 6-foot junior, pitched in a double-double with 12 points and 13 rebounds. The Cardinals enjoyed a 39-33 advantage on the boards and a 10-2 advantage on steals.
Down 20-18 at halftime, Hupp put back a miss for two, then Riley Sibbel added one of her own to force a DC-S timeout. Wetzel got three-straight 3-point plays off offensive rebounds for a 33-23 lead with 2 minutes, 10 seconds left in the third quarter.
The Cardinals kept coming the rest of the way, pushing the lead to 20 before both teams emptied their benches in the closing minutes.
St. Mary's struck first with a Wetzel bucket in the lane and Bridget Schneider added a layup, but FayeLee Sanford and Emily Jones hit 3-pointers to give Dundy County-Stratton an 8-4 lead.
Those would be the only 3-pointers that DC-S would hit all game, as they were held to 2 of 14 beyond the arc. The Tigers were 14 of 48 for 29.2 percent from the field. The Cardinals were 20 of 54 for 37 percent field-goal shooting.
March 3, 2015Dr. Jerome J. King, Dr. Randolph M. Howes, and Dr. Jie ZhangSee all 0 Comments
Fish Oil Oxidation and Oxygen Discussion
Dr. Jerome J. King, Dr. Randolph M. Howes, and Dr. Jie Zhang
Marine oils have long been recognized as having health benefits and that mind set is still true today. Modern consumers, in addition to recognizing health benefits, are also concerned about the overall safety of the oils both for themselves and for their loved ones. How does one know if oil is “safe” and does it contain chemicals or chemical breakdown products that may be detrimental? Modern day analytical methods and instrumentation can determine the type and amount of fatty acids in the oil and medical science has established certain health benefits with select fatty acids.
From a strictly biochemical aspect, fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are long-chained organic molecules that can be classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated. Saturated fatty acids are composed of carbon atoms bonded to the next carbon atom all with single bonds. A mono-unsaturated fatty acid is also composed of carbon atoms bonded together, but two of the carbon atoms have a double bond which is denoted as - C = C -. A polyunsaturated fatty acid has two or more sets of carbon atoms with double bonds and could be denoted as - C = C – C = C -. The number and location of the double bonds affect the physical composition of the fat. If fatty acids with multiple double bonds are present, the fatty acids result in liquid oil while if the fatty acids are all saturated, the material would be a solid. Plant or vegetable oils contain monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids and are liquid in nature while animal fats, which generally contain unsaturated fatty acids, are solid.
The presence of double bonded (unsaturated) fatty acids also introduces a fatty acid that is more prone to certain chemical reactions (oxidations) from a variety of sources. The reactions can cause breakage of the double bond and the formation of chemicals that cause off-odors and off-flavors to the oil and concerns about the health effects of the product. Fish oil oxidation includes a series of chemical reactions. The oxidation of oil is related to many factors, such as oxygen, temperature, light, moisture and catalysts. The oxidation of oil cannot be stopped completely; it happens in every step of oil production and consumption.
If one or more of the fatty acids is removed from the triglyceride, the fatty acid is called a free fatty acid. Free fatty acids can be produced by enzymatic activity (lipases), oxidation and other chemical reactions. Actually, in the body, most of the fat is hydrolyzed by enzymatic activity to release free fatty acids and mono- or di-glycerides in order for the digestive tract to absorb the fat into the body. Once absorbed, these components will reform triglycerides and involve into metabolism. The fatty acids (including free fatty acids) are important in the metabolism of energy production, energy storage, membrane formation, and cellular signaling transpiration. In industry, some companies use the level of free fatty acids for evaluation of the sales value. The level of free fatty acids can be used as an index for oxidation level in the oil. Oxidation processes can release the free fatty acid from the triglyceride which can happen during prolonged heating at high temperature. The presence of free fatty acids, in turn, can speed up oxidative reactions. There are no official standards for free fatty acids, and again, free fatty acid levels indicate nothing about the health safety by the oil industry. The test for free fatty acids is a titration where any chemical that can neutralize a base is listed as a free fatty acid.
Dave’s comment: Our body metabolizes fats through oxidiation process into free fatty acid form. FFA is a important fat structure our bodies commonly require a fatty acid for digestive ability. The beauty of fermentation is predigesting the raw material through a natural enzymatic/bacterial digestion producing a product that is readily used by our bodies. Our focus is to create FFA for easy digestion of the oil. I suspect one of the reasons that fermented cod liver oil digests easier for most people compared to industrial produced oils is because of the natural FFA in the product. Industry uses a variety of methods to remove FFA from their oils then adds preservatives (anti-oxidants) to hold the product from breakdown/digesting.
Oil oxidation can produce different compounds in different oxidative stages. It starts with an oxidation stage of peroxides and dienes, from which free fatty acids will be produced. Then, the oxidation enters the secondary oxidation stage, where the carbonyls and aldehydes may be produced. The oxidation products may bring an undesirable smell and/or color in the oil, which is the reason the industry would like to use many different processes to remove or prevent the production of oxidation products.
Dave’s comment: I suspect substantial difference in product character based on production practice, fermentation, wild fermentation, or heat/chemical breakdown. With the exception of food safety standards, each end product will have a unique set of standards, markers and expectations.
There are many methods to determine the stages of oxidation. One widely used method is called Peroxide Value (PV), which is used to measure the primary oxidation products. The hydroperoxides, which are the main products from primary oxidation reactions, are measured by the PV test. Chemically, a hydroperoxide is an organic molecule that has carbon groups bonded with two oxygen atoms and one terminal hydrogen and is a derivative of hydrogen peroxide. A high PV indicates that high levels of primary oxidation products are present. The peroxide value test can initially start at a low value, increase over time as primary oxidation occurs, and then drop as the primary oxidation products are reacted upon. The high PV value always relates to high temperature process and long heating time, such as the long-time used oil in the deep fry.
When the hydroperoxides decompose to other compounds, oxidation enters a secondary stage. The secondary oxidation products are measured with the p-Anisidine test, which uses a reagent called Anisidine. When added to samples of oil, the Anisidine reacts with ketones and aldehydes and produces a measurable chemical complex. The test gives an indication of the number/amount of aldehydes and ketones in the product. The higher Anisidine value, the more aldehydes and or ketones present, which can give the oil a more noticeable off taste or odor.
Dave’s comment: I have never seen relevant issues of hydroperoxide formation in any raw fat. I suspect relevant hydroperoxide formation maybe be near impossible if not impossible without heat and other industrial actions.
Some researchers have incorporated the peroxide value and p-Anisidine value into a Totox value. Over time, the peroxide value will decrease because the double bonded carbons and the formation of primary oxidation products will be used up (chemically converted) with the formation of the secondary oxidation products. The secondary oxidation products will remain in the oil and not decrease in concentration, and may result in a rancid oil. To understand oil and its potential of rancidity, it is important to monitor the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products over time. The Totox value equals 2PV + AV, which is used to represent the overall oxidation state. A typical oxidation state can be shown as in the figure below:
Currently, there are no approved international standards for acceptable peroxide values, p-Anisidine values, or Totox values. There are only suggested standards. This is likely due to the formation rate. The type and amount of secondary oxidation products cannot always be predicted and there is a natural variability of unsaturated fatty acids in fish oil. Also, the determination of rancidity is based on a person’s sense of smell or taste and there is no standard used to define off taste or odor.
Dave’s comment: Every product has its own unique thumbprint. Part of the thumbprint can be PV, AV and Totox markers. These are not food safety markers but rather tell the story of a product through time.
Generally, individual companies will set their own acceptable peroxide value, p-Anisidine or Totox value. Of the three, the p-Anisidine and Totox values may have the most significance for measuring oxidation level of the product, which relates to off-odor and color, because of the variable nature of the peroxide value test.
There is another test called the Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) testing to measure the aldehyde products. However, the TBA test can be inaccurate due other components, such as sugars, DNA, etc. Actually, the TBA test is more frequently used in the test for the freshness of animal tissues, such as meat and seafood.
Dave’s comment: TBA is not a marker to be used with oils. It has no bearing or reliable purpose for use in viewing an oils thumbprint.
Because of the potential oxidation of fish oil (due to multiple double bonds in the fatty acids) the levels of unsaturated fatty acids will decrease, as the double bonds are lost. The rate and amount of decrease is variable.
Unlike fat-soluble chemicals such as PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and dioxins, the products of lipid oxidation are not considered to be toxic from a chemical point of view. The research on the oxidation by-products indicate isoprostanes and neuroprostanes are produced and neither are found on the California Prop 65 or the Codex Alimentarius.
Prop 65 and Codex are two commonly referenced publications that list toxic or health-related chemicals. The off odors and flavors can be sensory offensive, but chemically, they are considered to be safe and not harmful. The international organizations that set standards for fish oils list requirements for heavy metals such as mercury and organic chemicals such as PCB, but they do not require monitoring of individual lipid oxidation products.
Related to the safety issue for all these oxidation products, Dr. Howes helped us to answer some questions with his expertise.
The following paragraphs were quoted from Dr. Howes’ article.
There is no simplistic solution to the redox dilemmas with which we are faced.
As redox expert, Dr. Barry Halliwell, said, "There is peroxide in a freshly brewed cup of coffee because of the presence of antioxidant polyphenols in the coffee, which serve as electron donors to oxygen." Thus, the more antioxidants present in the foodstuff ingested, the more likelihood for the generation of more reactive oxygen species (ROS), more accurately termed electronically modified oxygen derivatives, (EMODs).
Thus, the addition of antioxidants to fermented food products could serve to create more ROS, not less, if one subscribes to this viewpoint. Ingestion of naturally fermented oxidized products would be expected to generate or produce lower levels of so-called harmful ROS.
Still, the basic premise of ROS being harmful is flawed and outdated but investigators continue to try to force the data to fit their flawed thinking and to support the nullified free radical theory.
It is important to understand that we are not test tubes. While it is true that ROS will attack DNA and proteins, living cells are able to “fight back” against all sorts of stress through special “repair and neutralize” tools. In the case of ROS, there are multiple protection systems: special enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase exist for the sole purpose of ROS neutralization, and a small peptide known as glutathione can efficiently scavenge ROS throughout the cell. Despite the existence of these systems, a paradigm has been in place for some years throughout the scientific community that some ROS escape and are able to cause damage to cells, ultimately being responsible for various pathologies and possibly the process of aging. Lately, however, evidence has surfaced that ROS are not simply unfortunate by-products of our aerobic metabolism. ROS are now regarded as important signaling molecules inside the cell, crucial for the communication between different cell compartments. Even more strangely, studies in model organisms have shown that ROS can be media-tors of some health-promoting effects. The most recent of such studies suggests that ROS may be crucial for the proper functioning of the immune system.
Dr. Howes' book entitled, Antioxidants Linked To Deadly Unintended Consequences, presents over 500 study reports showing the ineffectiveness of common antioxidants and of these, 170 study reports show the harmful potential of ingestion of excessive amounts of antioxidants. Because the free radical theory lacks predictability or reproducibility, it has been invalidated and nullified by not meeting the requirements of the scientific method.
Oxidized fat and lipid oxidation products are commonly present in human foods and these compounds are absorbed by the intestine and appear in the blood circulation. These ingested substances may or may not have deleterious effects in both humans and experimental animals.
To our knowledge, there have been no large scale, randomized controlled human trials on these substances. Therefore, considerable additional research is required to establish the extent to which dietary fat oxidation may pose a threat to human health and/or longevity.
Dave’s comment: It is becoming more and more common knowledge that oxygen is healthful rather than harmful in natural metabolic processes. If so, what is in dietary fats that creates damaging issues in our bodies if it is not oxygen. One possible theory goes back to the discussions of Dr. Francis Pottenger, ‘Pottengers Cats’ and Dr. Price’s, ‘Nutrition and Physical Degeneration’. Maybe the problems can be traced to fat production; traditional non-processed fats/raw fats vs. industrial prepared fats. What might cause issues within processed fats? It does not appear to be oxygen. Processed fats are heavily preserved (anti-oxidants) to the point that many processed fats oxidative curves are flat even after a very long exposure to air. Maybe the damage comes from the preservative actions and compounds applied to the processed oils? Or maybe it is one or more of the thousands of altered structures within a processed oil and/or a highly heated oil. I read a study that discussed monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fats can equally have ill effect on the body. But what I do not recall is a conversation differentiating between the different processing methods to produce the different oils such and raw vs. processed fats.
Hypoperoxides and related oxidative compounds are not relevant in fermented cod liver oil and I suspect will not be relevant in any raw fat.
Ongoing Oxidative Stability Test
We have ongoing oxidative stability testing to compare fermented cod liver oil and two other brand fish oils (brand X and Y). The results are shown below:
There are no official/approved standard measurement values for peroxide value. Some researchers reported that people can smell the off-odor when PV is higher than 20. From the graph, all FCLO results were lower than 20. Compared to the other two brands, brand X had similar results, but there was a sharp peak of brand Y, which appeared after one-week storage.
Dave’s comment: Both brands X and Y use preservatives (anti-oxidants). My guess is brand X is more heavily processed and preserved compared to brand Y. I base this guess on how flat the curve X is when exposed to air. The beauty of fermentation is stability. Refrigeration is a rather new invention. Fermenting foods has been the historically/traditional method to prepare and store foods. It is time tested and proven to work both functionally, safety and best for human health.
The long-term data on PV results can be found in the graph below; all PV results were lower than 10 during 12 month storage period.
Dave’s comment: We have not done extensive studies in this area as these types of tests are not part of food safety discussion but rather for information and study on our fermentation methods. We will learn more over the next couple years.
The results of anisidine value can be found on the graph above. Some commercial oil companies set 20 as a quality control limit for this value. It is clear on this graph that FCLO had the lowest anisidine value. CLO Brand X was higher than FCLO, but CLO Brand Y had a higher number throughout the storage period.
Dave’s comment: None of these results should be used to judge cod liver oils for safety. Over the years we have tested many cod liver oils and to date we have never seen ANY cod liver oil that does not fully meet food safety standards! You can feel safe buying any cod liver oil in the market with full confidence when it comes to food safety concerns!
TBA value was showed above. All CLOs had low numbers of TBA, and there was not a significant difference between the three products. Some references set 5 as a TBA value standard, but this should not become a concern for fish oil products.
Again, all test results showed the FCLO has low oxidation products, which means the oxidation level in FCLO is relative low. Industry has set up oxidation indexes to eliminate off-odor and obtain clearer color.
But, all these oxidation products are not related to any food safety or health issue. The natural fermentation, without heating and light, gives it a unique quality and distinctive health benefits. Therefore, oxidation should not be a concern for this exceptional and great product.
Dave’s comment: Industry does not understand nor respect natural processes. Attempting to define fermented cod liver oil within a industrial context the result will never be flattering as industry standards do not mesh with natural processes. It is like a square peg being pounded into a round hole.
Bio For Dr. Jerome J. King
Currently, Dr. King servers as the Technical Director at Midwest Laboratories, Omaha, Nebraska. Dr. King has been with Midwest since 1989 and has served as the QA/QC Director as well as Technical Director. In his role as the Technical Director and QA/QC Director, Dr. King has provided the oversight for the method development and analytical compliance and certification for a variety of tests, including vitamins, amino acids, cholesterol, and fatty acid profiles. The laboratory has undergone external auditors for ISO 17025 accreditation and has participated in a number of proficiency programs. In the role of QA/QC director, Dr. King has managed the development and implementation of Standard Operating Procedures, internal audits, and the managed the training of new analysts.
Bio for Dr. Howes
Professor Randolph M. Howes M.D., Ph.D. was the first in the history of Tulane School of Medicine to receive double doctorate degrees in medicine and biochemistry simultaneously. He was awarded a patent certificate for inventing the triple lumen venous catheter in 1977, licensed it to Arrow International, Inc. in 1981, successfully defended it is a multimillion dollar six year patent infringement suit and watched it become recognized as the number one venous catheter in the world. His multilumen catheter has been credited with helping save the lives of over 20 million critically ill patients worldwide and the name of Howes is well known in over 100 countries. He retired from his private practice to pursue his dream of contributing to a better understanding of oxygen biochemistry and of conducting an arduous in depth review of the world’s scientific literature on oxygen metabolism. He acquired board eligibility in both general and plastic surgery from training at the prestigious Johns Hopkins Hospital.
He received the 1994 Dr. Norman Vincent Peale Unsung Hero award winner, for his remarkable versatility. Prof. Howes received the Harper Award for innovative research from the American College for Advancement in Medicine and served as their keynote speaker. He is a medical columnist and has written over 500 articles on popular medical topics. In 2013, he was the first doctor in the history of the American College for Advancement in Medicine (ACAM) to be awarded the Charles Farr award for "excellence in oxidative medicine."
In 2004, he published his first in a series of e-books on oxygen metabolism, which was a 767-page tome entitled, “U.T.O.P.I.A.: Unified Theory of Oxygen Participation In Aerobiosis.” In the past eleven years, he published more than 25 books regarding the free radical theory and oxygen free radical metabolism, such as “The Medical and Scientific Significance of Oxygen Free Radical Metabolism.”
Some of Dr. Howes' books are available on www.amazon.com as follows:
These books contain over 8,000 pages of material and tens of thousands of peer-reviewed references, which represents the most comprehensive selective overview of oxygen metabolism available today. His belief is that the free radical theory is unfounded and that electronically modified oxygen derivatives (EMODs) are of low toxicity and essential for energy production, for pathogen protection, as secondary cell messengers and as tumoricidal agents. His Unified Theory states that EMOD insufficiency levels “allow” for the manifestation of diseases, including neoplasia and is a contributing factor in the aging phenomenon. He also postulates that an EMOD insufficiency is the basis for coexistence of diseases. Dr. Howes, who is both an experimentalist and a theoretician, is an international lecturer on plastic surgery and a world expert on the biochemistry of oxygen free radicals. His passionate goal is to have cures at the bedside, based on his innovative theories involving electronically modified oxygen derivatives, within his lifetime.
Bio for Dr. Jie Zhang
Dr. Jie Zhang graduated from Sichuan University in Chengdu, China, with a Bachelor of Science degree in Food Science and Technology in June 2006. He earned his Master of Science in Food Engineering from Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, in June 2009. He received his degree in Food Science in May 2014 in Food Science at Louisiana State University. Dr. Jie published three referred articles and 3 abstracts. Dr. Jie was awarded second place at the 2013 IFT- Refrigerated and Frozen Foods division graduate student paper and won the IFT Gulf Coast Section scholarship for his work in seafood. He received economic development scholarship from Louisiana State University in 2014. He worked in novel fish oil extraction methods and seafood processing improvement. In August 2014, he joined Green Pasture Product as the quality control and product safety manager.
Gum Disease and Nutrient-Dense Food Supplements: Results of an In-Office Study
February 27, 2015Well Being Journal Vol. 24, No, 2- By Alvin Danenberg, D.D.SSee all 4 Comments
By Alvin Danenberg, D.D.S, Well Being Journal, Vol. 24, No, 2.
Today, there is a 47 percent prevalence rate of periodontitis among adults in the United States. Periodontitis is the advanced stage of gum disease, where not only are the gums infected but the bone surrounding the roots of the teeth is infected and breaking down. For those who are over 65 years old, the prevalence rate jumps to 70 percent.
I have been a periodontist (a dentist who specializes in gum disease) for forty years. For the first thirty-five years, I treated advanced gum diseases the way most periodontists do: by performing traditional gum surgery, which was somewhat successful but relatively uncomfortable for patients. Several years ago, I learned a better way for my patients. In 2010, I became licensed in a laser procedure called LANAP® (Laser Assisted New Attachment Procedure) that kills harmful bacteria, helps grow new bone, and creates overall better results without the use of a scalpel or sutures. Most important, patients don’t experience the pain or swelling that has been part of traditional gum surgery.
In 2013, I started to become educated about the importance of ancestral nutrition and nutrient-dense foods, and how they affect dental and overall health. I attended a five-day nutrition course for health professionals, held at Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health and, several months later, a four-day Food As Medicine conference. This education was life changing for me and has been life changing for many of my patients. I personally became reenergized, and I reengineered my periodontal practice.
With all this new information pertaining to lifestyle, I also wanted to know what science had to say about nutrient-dense, unprocessed foods specifically for gum disease. I researched PubMed, which is the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s database of published medical research from around the world. I found one study regarding gum disease and Paleolithic nutritionand several recent studies involving nutrition and gum disease. However, I could find no studies on how specific nutrient-dense foods affected the progress of gum disease. So, in March of 2014, I decided to create a study using my own patients who wished to be a part of my research. I enlisted the help of Ramiel Nagel, researcher and author of Cure Tooth Decay, who designed the study with me. Now my research is completed, and the results are in.
Selection of Patients The specific criteria for patient selection were:
• The patient could not have been on any antibiotic during the last three months.
• The patient had not undergone active gum treatment (including deep cleaning or a general cleaning by the hygienist) in the last three months.
• Infected gum pockets (the spaces between the gum and tooth) bled when a periodontal probe (a gum-pocket measuring instrument) was gently inserted into the gum space.
• The gum pockets had a depth of at least 4 mm (1-3 mm without any bleeding while being measured with a periodontal probe is considered healthy).
• No more than four individual teeth per patient who met the criteria were selected for the study.
• Participants were instructed not to change any habits, lifestyle activities, dietary regimens, or medications during the course of the thirty-day study.
Results We selected thirteen patients who met the criteria above for the study. They agreed to take a variety of nutrient-dense real food supplements for thirty days to find out if these supplements would be effective in reducing some of their manifestations of gum disease. I examined and measured 41 teeth within this group of thirteen patients.
I gave these patients three different nutrient-dense food supplements in capsule form, containing various micronutrients, which they took almost every day. The micronutrients are identified in websites referenced below. A synergistic effect exists from taking this combination of supplements.
Here are the doses for each of the supplements:
• 8 capsules of Green Pasture’s blend of fermented cod liver oil with high vitamin butter oil
• 2 capsules of Green Pasture’s fermented skate liver oil
• 2 capsules of Oregon’s Wild Harvest organic kelp powder
My patients took these nutrient-dense supplement capsules along with their normal foods for thirty days. For the first five days of the study, they gradually transitioned into taking the full doses, in order to help their bodies acclimate to these nutrient-dense foods. If they had taken the full doses on day one, they might have had nausea or diarrhea, since their bodies were not used to these supplements. Also, they did not take any capsules on every seventh day, which was a rest day for their guts. As I mentioned, they did not change anything else in their diets or daily routines. They followed the same schedules and lifestyles as they had before the study—the only difference was that they took these nutrient-dense supplements.
For more information, author bio, and references see the full article in the print, or digital download version of the Well Being Journal.
Is this a peer-reveiewed study? Or has it been published or plans to publish in a peer-reviewed journal?
Elizabeth, Utah, USA, February 27, 2015 at 6:59 PM
Can read the rest here without paying:
Nicole, Buffalo, NY, March 11, 2015 at 7:48 PM
Thank you for the link!
Honora, Christchurch, New Zealand, February 27, 2015 at 4:35 PM
Any issues of patients with undiagnosed autoimmune thyroiditis having problems with the kelp powder? I would love to be able to include this fantastic nutrient in my diet, but alas, have Hashimotos Disease. For some reason, my Vit D level dropped from 15 to 13 (US units) after taking a bottle of Green Pastures CLO/butter oil over 3 months or so.
so many errors or issues with blood testing vitamin D. labs, technicians, defining,interpretation even discussions on what a reading means. many things go into vitamin D pathway.. healthy thyroid, mineral balance, healthy enzyme systems, diet, transfats etc....
I'm excited to introduce and offer this book give away. I was first introduced to Dr. Mikovits work at the Autism One conference this past summer. She passionately described her effort to disclose her finding of unintended retro viruses in vaccines.
Vaccines are a current hot topic this is great timing to introduce Dr. Mikovits work, "Plague" to our community.
"Plague," by Kent Heckenlively, JD and Judy Mikovits, PHD
A compelling true story filled with groundbreaking scientific research, legal drama, and landmark scientific and political ramifications.
On July 22, 2009, a special meeting was held with twenty-four leading scientists at the National Institutes of Health to discuss early findings that newly discovered retrovirus was linked to chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), prostate cancer, lymphoma, and eventually neurodevelopmental disorders in children. When Dr. Judy Mikovits finished her presentation, the room was silent for a moment, then one of the scientists said, "Oh my God!" The resulting investigation would be like no other in science.
For Dr. Mikovits, a twenty-year veteran of the National Cancer Institute, this was the midpoint of a five-year journey that would start with the founding of the Whittemore Peterson Institute for Neuro-Immune Disease at the University of Nevada, Reno, and end with her as a witness for the federal government again her former employer, Harvey Whittemore, for illegal campaign contributions to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid.
On this journey Dr. Mkovits would face the scientific prejudices against ME/CFS, wander into the minefield that is autism, and through it all struggle to maintain her faith in God and the profession to which she had dedicated her life. This is a story for anybody interested in the peril and promise of science at the very highest levels in our country.
"Judy Mikovits was unshakable in her convictions and harsh on her critics whom she considered biased, occasionally dishonest, and often ill-informed. She was a charming advocate of patients. Startlingly for a scientist, she even consorted with them, seeking them out and befriending them, once posting her personal email address prominently to the blogosphere. Her rationale was not just humane but utterly reasonable: her understanding of this disease arose from patients and their histories and she formulated hypotheses for scientific experiments based on what she heard and observed. The ancient Greeks would have lauded Mikovits for her methods, but in the twenty-first century, she was an oddball.
Certainly, there was little doubt that Mikovits was a different kind of scientist, on who didn't seek the approval of the top guns at the NIH and who wasn't afraid to upbraid scientists at the CDC whether via email of in person. Indeed, she had a quality of fierceness rarely seen in science."
-- From the foreword by Hillary Johnson copyright 2014
2) The drawing will begin February 26th, 2015 and will end March 11th, 2015. We will randomly select one winner every other day. If there are remaining books after Mach 11th, 2015, we will draw from those who previously requested the book but did not win.
My youngest is still of the age I can share the below family story. A couple years from now I would be in trouble.
We went fishing and the boys understand that you eat what you catch. Growing up in the Midwest fish is not a staple but rather cheeseburgers. My youngest has never met a cheeseburger that he has not liked.
I read a book/studies that show that we learn our tastes in our mother’s womb and also during your first two years of age. This is why cultures are so different in likes and dislikes. If you bring stinky cheeses to China you will be hard pressed to find anyone that will eat them but others, and I in the west, really enjoy stinky cheese on a cracker. Similar to fermented fish foods. In China these are treasured but in the west we struggle to enjoy.
Pictured here are Basil 7 and Max 11 with their trophy catches
Restaurant across the street will cook our fresh catch. It was excellent! Max and I enjoyed.
Basil on the other hand...well watch. He understood that if he did not clean his plate there was no more fishing. One eats what they hunt/catch. He was determined to finish, as he really likes the sport of fishing.