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“Cod” Taxonomy: Understanding Scientific and Common Names

In basic biology lessons, grade school students typically learn about the concept of scientific (or taxonomic) classification. As students generally are told, taxonomy—the science of “naming, describing, and classifying organisms”[1]—makes it easier to find, identify, and study plants and animals (which, in taxonomic terms, are kingdoms, alongside other kingdoms such as bacteria and fungi).

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The Fermenting of Fish and Fish By-Products: Fish Sauces in Ancient Medicine and Cuisine

Many people are familiar with the idea that the ancient Romans used fish sauces in their cuisine but not many people realise that the most valued and expensive form of fish sauce was made from, what was perceived by the Romans themselves, as rotten or fermented fish viscera. This special sauce, known as garum, was valued by the elite but it was also used in ancient medicine. Why on earth would anyone ferment fish viscera?

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Historical Perspectives of Cod Liver Oil

Previously, to ensure high quality fish products, it was imperative that the mills were close to the water. The fish used were the fish which were available close to the mills. As Möller explains on page XLIV: “Or even as to the kind of fish from which they are taken. At Lofoten and Romasdalen the use of livers other than those of cod is out of the question, because no other fish are caught there. … In Finmarken the matter is entirely different. The making of cod liver oil goes on all the year round, but except during the unimportant spawning fishery the livers of cod fish are by no means the only raw material available for the caldron. Great quantities of haddock, coal fish, hake, torsk, ling, halibut, and wolf fish are caught, and last but not least, there is the porbeagle and the Greenland shark.

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Scientific Analysis of Dr. Jacob Friest

What follows is the scientific analysis conducted by Dr. Jacob Friest, PhD Organic Chemistry, Chair of the Nebraska Section of the American Chemical Society. He had access to any test results he wanted. We tested anything he wanted and provided samples from our vats for further independent evaluation. Below is just a sample of the many tests he reviewed:

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Garum – The History of Fermented Cod Liver Oil

Recent events have lead me to have a close look at fermented fish products. In particularly I’ve been looking at a product called garum, which is the inspiration for Green Pasture’s Fermented Cod Liver Oil. These products are made in a very unique way, and as a result have some very interesting properties.

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